“ETHNO-HISTORICAL / CURRENT SNAP SHOT OF THE      CHEROENHAKA (NOTTOWAY) INDIAN TRIBE"                                     Compiled by: Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, BS,MS                                                Updated May 30, 2015

 

•             The Hand Site Excavation (44SN22) – in Southampton County carbon dates the ancestors of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe in Southampton County, Virginia to around 1580. It is believed this site existed in 700 AD.  NOTE: On November 2, 2009, a State Historical Marker commemorating the Hand Site was placed on the corner of General Thomas Hwy and Hansom Road in Southampton County. The marker notes that the site was “long claimed” by the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe.

•             The Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe made first ethno-historic contact with the English in 1607-1608 in what is now Nottoway County, Virginia.  The English were looking for information germane to Roanoke Island…the “Lost Colony.”

•             In 1607 the tribe was called Man-goak or Men-gwe by the Powhatan Confederation’s “Algonquian Speakers” and further listed in the upper left hand quadrant on John Smith’s 1607 map of Virginia by the same name in what is now Nottoway County. 

•             The Colonials gave names to other Indian Tribes based on what the Indians they had first contact with called other tribes; such as, the Algonquian Speakers calling the Cheroenhaka, NA-DA-WA or Nottoway as perceived by the Colonials.

•             In the Seventeenth Century, Virginia Indians (Natives) were divided into three language groups:  Algonquian Speakers, Siouan Speakers and Iroquoian Speakers. 

•             In the Seventeenth Century, the Iroquoian Speaking Tribes occupied lands east of the Fall Line on the inner Costal Plains of Southeastern Virginia.  These tribes were the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway), the Meherrin and the Tuscarora.

•             In 1650 per the diary entries of James Edward Bland, the Nottoway Indians were called by the Algonquian Speakers as NA-DA-WA which the Colonials reverted to Nottoway.

•             August 1650 Bland encountered two Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Villages: The first town located in what is now Sussex County near Rowantee Branch / Creek was “Chounteroute Town.” At that time Chounteroute (Cho-un-te-roun-te) was king /Chief of the Nottoways.  The second town, Tonnatorah, was located on the south side of the Nottoway River where the current Sussex - Greenville County line meets the River.

•             The true name of the “Nottoway” is Cheroenhaka (Che-ro-en-ha-ka), meaning “People at the Fork of the Steam.” The tribe’s lodging area was where the Nottoway River forks with The Backwater River to form the Chowan River – thus “People at the Fork of the Steam.”  The name Cheroenhaka is noted in the papers of Lewis Binford and the in the book by Albert Gallatin.

•             The War Department Papers of 1796 refer to the Nottoway as Cheroenhaka.  The Honorable James Tresevant (Trezevant) in 1831 states that the true name of the Nottoway is Cheroenhaka.

•             The Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe signed three treaties: The Treaty of 1646; 1677 and a STAND ALONE Treaty of February 27th, 1713.  On February 27, 1713 Colonial Provisional LT Gov. Alexander Spotswood signed a Stand Alone Treaty with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe’s Chief “Ouracoorass Teerheer”, AKA William Edmund (sometimes spelled  Edmond), as called by the Colonials.  Said Treaty has a “Successor Clause.”  Our tribal government (Council) contends that the Successor Clause meant that the recognized relationship the tribe had with the Colonials from 1713 to1775 continued with the Commonwealth of Virginia beginning in 1776 and the Federal Government in 1781 to the present time.

•             Tribal Warriors of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe joined forces with Bacon in what became known as the infamous Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion of May 1776 resulting in the downfall of the Occaneechee Indians at Occaneechee Island / on the Roanoke River. Bacon’s Rebellion was a catalyst to the Woodland Plantation Treaty of 1677.

•             In the mid 1680s, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, due to encroachment by the Colonials and to avoid war with other tribes, move from the Nottoway Town of Ta-ma-hit-ton / Tonnatorah in Sussex County to the mouth of the Assamoosick Swamp in what is now Surry County and again in the mid 1690s moved further down the Assamoosick toward present day Courtland and Sebrell in what was then Isle of Wight County - currently Southampton County Virginia.

•             In 1703, as noted in a sworn statement before the Courts in Prince George County, James Threatte spoke of the three villages of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe – Cattashowrock, Tonnatorah and Rowantee.

•             In 1705 the House of Burgess granted two tracks of “Reservation Land” to the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe – the Circle Track (18, 000 acres) and Square Track (23, 000 acres) totaling some 41,000 acres of Reservation Land.  The two tracks of land fell within the confines of what was then Isle of Wight County – now Southampton and Sussex Counties.  Note: Southampton County was annexed from Isle of Wight County in 1749.

•             In 1711 Colonial LT Governor Alexander Spotswood met with the Chief and Chief Men of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Tribe offering “Tribute” forgiveness, reference in the Treaty of 1677 (20 Beaver Pelts and 3 Peace Arrows), if the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Chief Men would send their sons to the “Brafferton,” a school for Indians at the College of William and Mary.

•             Even though the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) were fearful their sons would be sold into slavery, ethno-historic records document that Spotswood reported on November 17, 1711 that two of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Chief Men’s sons were attending the “Brafferton.”

•             Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians “Surnames” continue to appear on the enrollment roster of the “Brafferton” throughout the 1750s and 1760s.

•             March 1713 the Colonial Council at Williamsburg ordered that the Meherrin Indians be incorporated with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians and that the Nansemond Indians be incorporated with the Saponies. Purpose was to remove them to a place where they would be less liable to have differences with the English and for the convening of instructing their children in Christianity by missionaries at the two settlements.

•             On August 10, 1715 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) King and 8 Great Men (Nottoway Chief Men) were invited to the Capital in Williamsburg and put in irons and chains for three days until they consented to send 12 of their children to attend school at Fort Christiana in Brunswick County.  On August 13, 1715 the chains were removed and they were ordered release. 

•             December 10, 1719 a list of names of 8 Nottoway and 12 Meherrin children were given to the Colonial Council in Williamsburg, Virginia to attend school at Fort Christiana.

•             On November 30, 1720 the Colonial Council ordered that a collection of all transaction with Tributary Indians or Foreign Indians be made and that the clerk of the council make a collection of all negations with the Indians from first settlement of the Colony.

•             On April 7th & 8th, 1728, William Byrd, II of Westover, visited the Indian Town of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe on the Tribe’s reservation land located in what is now Courtland, Virginia. Byrd described how the men and women looked, danced, dressed and the nature of their Palisade Fort, Longhouses and bedding; to include, the colors that the women were wearing – red, white and blue. Byrd also noted in his diary of 1728 that the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) was the only tribe of Indians of any consequence still remaining within the limits of Virginia.

•             On August 7th, 1735, the Indian Interpreters, Henry Briggs and Thomas Wynn, for the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians were dismissed by an Act by the Commonwealth and on the same day the “first” of many land transfer deeds for the “Circle Tract of Land” transpired between the Colonials and the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Chief’s Men and would continue up until November 1953, until both Circle and Square Track of Lands (41, 000 Acres of Reservation Lands), were in the hands of the Europeans.

•             On December 19, 1756 George Washington submits letter to The Honorable Robert Dinwiddie expressing an interest among the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians in engaging some assistance from them.

•             On March 8, 1759 a petition was submitted for pay to Tom Steph, Billy John(s), School Robin, and Aleck Scholar, all of which are Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians who served under George Washington in the French & Indian Wars until the reduction of Fort Duquesne.

•             In July of 1808 the Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia mandated a “Special” Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Census be taken of those Indians living on the remaining lands (approx. 7,000 + acres) of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Reservation in what is now Courtland, Virginia..

•             The Special Census was conducted by three “White” Trustees of the Reservation. They were Henry Blow, William Blow, (a descendant of John Blow) and Samuel Blunt.  Note:  Not all Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians living on the Reservation were enumerated.

•             In 1816, new trustees were appointed for the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians. Theses Trustees were empowered to make reasonable rules and regulations for the government of the tribe and for the expenditure of the money held in trust for them, which was to continue so long as any number of the tribe were living.  Any funds remaining on hand were then to be paid into the public treasury.  

•             In August 1820 Former President Thomas Jefferson procured a copy of the language of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians as recorded by John Wood.  Wood, a former professor of Mathematics at William & Mary College, recorded the language on March 4th, 1820, from Edie Turner, (Her Indian name was Wane Rounseraw) who lived on the tribe’s reservation in Southampton County, Virginia.  Jefferson sent a copy of the language to Peter DuPonceau of Philadelphia who recognized the language as Iroquoian.  NOTE: On March 17, 1820, Jefferson was quoted in a article that appeared in the Petersburg Newspaper, that the only remains in the state of Virginia of the formidable tribes are the Pamunkeys and Nottoways [Cheroenhaka…WDB] and a few Mottoponies.

•             According to Lewis Binford and Albert Gallatin (Gallatin 1836:82), The Honorable James Tresevant (Trezevant) compiled a second recording of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Language in Southampton County, Virginia, between 1831 and 1836.  Tresevant reports that the Nottoway called themselves Cheroenhaka, sometimes spelled Cherohakah. 

•             In 1823-24 William Bozeman AKA Billy Woodson (name listed on the Special Nottoway Indian Census of 1808,  Note:  Billy Woodson’s father was white – Michal Boseman), files petition with Court of Southampton County to have remaining Nottoway Indian Reservations Lands divided “Free and Simple” between the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians.

•             On February 5th, 1849 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe filed suit within the Commonwealth of Virginia Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery for the County of Southampton County against Jeremiah Cobb. The suit was filed on behalf of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and other tribal members of said tribe by the tribe’s Trustees (white), James W. Parker, G.N.W. Newsom, and Jesse S. Parham.

•             On November 8th, 1850 Judge Rich H. Baker, Court of Southampton County ruled  in favor of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and on March 3, 1851, as witness by Littleton R. Edwards, Clerk of said court, awarded the tribe $818.82 with interest from June 1, 1845.

•             As a result of the successful Court Case in 1851, the Commonwealth of Virginia in the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery for the County of Southampton County, Virginia RECOGNIZED the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County, as a Tribe and hence The State of Virginia or the Federal Government, has never, since said time, by way of Law, Act, Bill or Policy negated its Recognition Status as a sovereign Nation/Tribe..

•             In 1850s as the final parcels of the Tribe’s Reservation Lands was disappearing into the hands of the Europeans many Tribal members (Artist, Bozeman, Turners, Rogers, Woodson, Brown) relocated to what became known as “Artist Town” near what is now Riverdale Road in Southampton County, Virginia. Their descendants continue to live there as a tribal communal group up until the late 1990s sharing their Native American Traditions and Customs – hunting, trapping, tanning hides,  fishing, farming, and raising Hogs (as a tribal tradition they notched the right ear and cut the tails of each hog)

•             The Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe is the only “Iroquoian Tribe” still residing in the Commonwealth of Virginia claiming a prior documented continual existence“STATE RECOGNIZED” and FEDERAL RECOGNIZED Status. [Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Vs Jeremiah Cobb, March 3rd, 1851, Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery for the County of Southampton County]. 

•             In 1877 the remaining 575 acres of the Tribe’s former 41,000 acre Reservation Land in Southampton County was divided between five Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian families whose descendents still reside in Southampton County. 

•             In 1965, 66, & 69 an excavation of what became known as the Hand Site Settlement (44SN22), in Southampton County, Virginia, off hwy 671 (General Thomas Hwy and Handsom Road) was conducted; wherein, some 131 “Documented” grave remains of Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Bones were removed, put in “shoe boxes” and placed on a shelf at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC. All non-skeletal remains are housed at the Department of Historical Resources, Richmond, Virginia. NOTE: Gerald Smith, Project Field Director for the Hand Site Excavation, documented the site as a Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Burial Ground and Settlement.

•             In February 2002, the Historic Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe reorganized by bringing together family clusters of Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Descendants and families still living in Southampton County Virginia. Walt “Red Hawk” Brown appointed as spoke person for the tribe at its first reorganization meeting. 

•             In May 2002 a Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Government was in place with the election of a Chief and Tribal Governing Council.  Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, a Southampton County Native, was elected as the first modern day Chief. He is the 5th foster Great Grandson of Queen Edy Turner, aka “Wane Roonseraw” (1754-1838), and the 4th Great Grandson Mary “Polly” Woodson Turner aka “Kara Hout” (Foster daughter of Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Queen Edy Turner) and Pearson Turner.  

•             The “first modern day” Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Powwow and Gathering took place on the grounds of the Southampton County Agriculture and Forestry Museum, Courtland, Virginia, on July 24, 2002 and continued annually at the Southampton County Fair Grounds on the fourth weekend of July as a celebration of the “Green Corn Harvest” up to 2011. In the 2012 the tribe began hosting Powwows on its own Tribal Land – Cattashowrock Town, in Courtland, Virginia.

•             On December 7, 2002 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe filed a letter of intent with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) announcing that it would be filing for Federal Recognition.

•             July 2003, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe held a Grave Side Memorial Ceremony for William Lamb (1875-1960) The Tribe laid a Grave Stone Marker at the head of the grave that read William Lamb, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian. The Ceremony was recognized by the Federal Recognized Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation in Connecticut in their newspaper, the Pequot Times, September 2003 Issue, page 42.  NOTE: William Lamb is portrayed in the writings of Floyd Painter as the last Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian that rode a bicycle in the town of Courtland, Virginia. 

•             On July 29, 2003, the Court of Southampton County, Virginia issued a license to Chief Walter David “Red Hawk” Brown, III of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, with all rights to perform the rites of matrimony for said Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe in accordance with the customs and traditions of said tribe and the Commonwealth of Virginia.

•             On February 27th 2004 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Shield and Heraldry was copyrighted with the Library of Congress. (VA 1-256-506)

•             On July 23, 2004  Issue I of  the Journal of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Southampton County Virginia, the WASKEHEE was published documenting the ethno-history of the tribe as written and documented by Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown under the title “Creator My Heart Speaks” and has continued annually thereafter. All of which have been archived into the Library of Virginia. NOTE: Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Council Member Lynette Alston (currently Chief of the Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia, INC) was the Editor for the first Two Issues of the Waskehee (Issue I & II).  Issue I of the Waskehee was copyright with the US Copyright Office on August 3, 2007 – Reg. #: TX 6-627-973. 

•             On July 24, 2004 the elected official body of Southampton County Virginia, the Southampton County Board of Supervisors, issued under its seal, a Proclamation of Recognition of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe proclaiming July 24 of said year as “Cheroenhaka Day.”

•             On September 21, 2004 the tribe participated, as one of 500 tribes, some 20,000 Natives, in the opening of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.  Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown was interviewed by ABC News, as narrated by Peter Jennings, giving comments as to what it meant, as a Native American, to be a part of the great celebration – video clip located in the tribe’s historical archives.

•             May 22, 2005, Tribal Council Member, Princess Felicia “Moon Flower” Brown (Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown’s daughter) was inducted into the Sigma Theta International Honor Society of Nurses – A Hampton University Graduate, she was Commissioned in the US Army Nurse Corps as a Nurse as a 2nd LT in June 2005. NOTE:  Hampton University, formerly Hampton Norman School, first inducted American Indian Students into their curriculum from 1875 – 1927.

•             On June 3, 2005, the Council of the State Recognized WACCAMAW Indian Tribe of South Carolina voted in favor of a Joint Resolution of the WACCAMAW Tribal Government, Resolution Number: Joint-HH-06-04-05-001, recognizing the sovereignty of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County, Virginia as signed by the Honorable Chief Harold D. Hatcher.

•             On June 13, 2005 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Heritage Foundation was incorporated as the “Non Profit” entity of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe – a 501 (c) 3 organization - Tax Exempt #: EIN 34-2005753.

•             On July 23, 2005 Issue II of the Journal of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Southampton Virginia, the WASKEHEE, was published depicting Spotswood’s Treaty with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians in February 27, 1713; to include, listing the tribe’s vocabulary as recorded by John Wood in 1820.  Issue II of the Waskehee was Copyright with the US Copyright Office on April 23, 2007 – Reg. #: TX 6-595-331.

•             On October 14th 2005, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe’s “Elected Officials” along with other tribal members and educators, visited the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, at the invite of Dr. Dorothy Lippert, Case Officer, Repatriation Programs, and viewed, in a special showing, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian “Skeletal Remains” taken from the Hand Site Excavation. The skeletal remains date back to 1580.

•             December 15, 2005, the tribe published its first News Letter, the Thrahunta (Th-ra-hun-ta) which means “To Hear” in the tribes Iroquoian Language (Da-sun-ke).

•             In December 2005 former Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Council Member Lynette Alston (current Chief of the Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia, INC) sent a derogatory email to Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and a State Official in what appeared to be an attempt to split the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe. In February 2006, Lynette Alston and five former Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Family Members, (Alston, Turner, Elliott, Lucas and Branch) started their own tribal group referring to their group as the Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia, INC.  NOTE: The genealogy of these former active Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members was researched and vetted by the tribal council of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe before being listed on its Tribal Rolls. NOTE:  A picture ID Tribal Card was issued to each with an assigned Tribal Roll Number.  Currently, and in accordance with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe’s Constitution and Bylaws same members are currently listed on said tribes “Inactive Rolls.”

•             On January 18, 2006 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Offered to the General Assembly of Virginia Senate Joint Resolution (SJR) 152, Title: Extending state recognition to the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe.  The SJ 152, even though it was supported/ patron by a number of Virginia Senators and House Members, SJR 152 was struck by Senator L. Louise Lucas, voice vote, on February 10, 2006, in the Senate Rules Committee without receiving any testimonial from Senator Lucas and or tribal representatives.

•             On February 9, 2006, at the recommendation of Senator Thomas Norment, (2006 Chairperson of the senate Rules Committee) the Tribal Elected Government of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County Virginia, submitted a “Letter of Intent” to the Chairperson and Council Members of the Virginia Council on Indians (VCI – now a defunct entity) as an official notice of intent to petition the Virginia General Assembly to extend State Recognition to the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe. NOTE:  The Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Chief and Council Members appeared before the VCI from 2002 through 2009 providing annually, numerous Ethno Historical Briefing and voluminous written historical records / documents (1000 pages +) codifying the continued existence of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe in Southampton County as further promulgated by signed certificates of proclamations of recognition on the County Seals from the Counties of Nottoway, Sussex, Surry, Isle of Wright and Southampton.

•             April 26, 2006, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, in full Native Chief’s Regalia, was one of 16 dignitaries (Mayors, Board Chairs of 10 Cities, One Town, and Six Counties) that signed a proclamation on “Parchment Paper” at Cape Henry Memorial, Fort Story, Virginia Beach, VA, lunching the year of Hampton Roads Regional Citizenship.  NOTE:  The “Parchment Paper” bearing all 16 signatures, couple with a newspaper media release now hangs on the honor wall within the Administrative Building of the Southampton County Board of Supervisors, Courtland, VA.

•             On July 9, 2006, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, as Chief of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County Virginia, was first to appear on the televised documentary “My Hampton Roads,” Wavy TV 10, as narrated by Andy Fox. Chief Red Hawk shared the tribe’s history. The documentary was televised on site in Southampton County; to include, the surnames of family ancestors by way of a televised visit to Chief Red Hawk’s family cemetery and farm along with the one room school that he and his family/ancestors walked two miles to attend. It is noted that more than one million viewers watched the documentary. 

•             July 2006 the tribe’s 5th Annual “Green Corn Dance” Pow Wow and Gathering took place at the Southampton County Fairgrounds, Courtland, Virginia as a celebration of 426 years of documented Ethno-History (1580 to 2006). 

•             On July 22, 2006 Issue III of the Journal of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Southampton County,  Virginia, the WASKEHEE, was published capturing the tribe’s visit to the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC,  on October 14, 2005; wherein, the skeletal remains of the Hand Site Excavation were viewed.  The journal also documents the writing of William Byrd and his visit to the tribe’s reservation in what is now Southampton County on April 7th & 8th, 1728.   Issue III of the Waskehee was copyright with the US Copyright Office on December 11, 2006 – Reg. #: TX 6-506-719.

 

•             July 2006 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe launched its World Wide Web Site which documents the tribe’s Constitution and Bylaws, Ethno history, and current history, Tribal Iroquoian Language, Powwow Events, by name tribal special census of 1808, educational presentations and the February 27, 1713 Spotswood Treaty Tribute to the Governor of Virginia.  http://www.cheroenhaka-nottoway.org  

•             On September 25, 2006 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe conducted a “Public” Peake Belt and Pipe Ceremony by the banks of the Nottoway River on the grounds of the Southampton County Court House; wherein, elected officials ( Board of Supervisors) from five counties (Nottoway, Sussex, Surry, Isle of Wight, and Southampton Counties) attended  and shared in the tribe’s traditional ceremony of passing the Peake (Peace) Pipe and accepting a Wampum (Ote-ko-a) Belt from Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown. All five counties presented Proclamations of Tribal Recognition, under their Counties’ Seal to the tribe.

•             In February 2007, the National Museum of American Indians (NAMAI), in recognition, added the name of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County Virginia to the “Honor Wall” of the NMAI, Washington DC. The name of the tribe is listed on panel 4.22, Line 20 of the Wall.

•             July 2007, The tribe’s Six Annual “Green Corn Dance” Powwow and Gathering took place at the Southampton County Fairgrounds, Courtland, Virginia as a celebration of 427 years of documented Ethno-History (1580 to 2007).

•             On July 21, 2007 Issue IV of the Journal of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Southampton County, Virginia, the WASKEHEE, was published as a Jamestown 2007 Special Edition recording Colonial Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood visit to the tribe reservation in 1711 with 1600 armed men inviting the Chief Men to send their sons to the Brafferton.  Issue IV also records the first Land Deed of Sale, on November 24, 1735, between Charles Simmons and the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indians with actual marks of the tribal Chief Men.  Issue IV of the Waskehee was copyright with the US Copyright Office on August 16, 2007- Reg. #: TX 6-820-738.

•             October 2007 Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a Fall Festival Powwow and School Day at the 4H Conference Center, Wakefield, VA.

•             October 13, 2007, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a “Corn Harvest” Fall Festival Powwow and School Day at the Army Airfield, Fort Pickett, in Blackstone, VA

•             November 2007, Chief Walt “ Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker)  and other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members, gave a Native American History Month Presentation to the Command at Fort Eustis, VA

•             November 21, 2007, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe’s Women Group Leader and Council Person Vashti “Sparrow Hawk” Clarke gave a Native American Presentation on the history, culture, traditions and language of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe to students and teachers at Kenston Forest Learning Center, Blackstone, VA.

•             March 27, 2008, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe received a formal letter of   invited to the Library of Virginia to take part in a special awards ceremony title “Women in History.” Chief  Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, after addressing members of the Library of Virginia and other invited guest in the tribes Iroquoian Language, accepted an award from the Library of Virginia on behalf of  former Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Queen Edith Turner aka Wane Roonseraw (1754-1838).

•             July 2008 the tribe’s 7th Annual “Green Corn Dance” Powwow and Gathering took place in July at the Southampton County Fairgrounds, Courtland, Virginia as a celebration of 428 years of documented Ethno-History (1580 to 2008).

•             On July 26, 2008 Issue V of the Journal of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Southampton County was published documenting the tribe’s visit to the Library of Virginia to accept an award on behalf Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Queen Edith Turner (Wane’ Roonseraw) 1754-1838. The Journal captures Turners last will and testament; to include a transcribe copy of the 1808 Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian “by name” Special Census.

•             October 2008  Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a second Fall Festival Powwow and School Day at the Army Airfield, Fort Pickett, in Blackstone, VA

•             On March 20, 2009, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County Virginia reclaimed, by purchase, 100 acres of its former 41,000 acre reservation land – formerly the Square Tract. The land will be used to build a combined Tribal Educational Center and Museum, an Interactive replica 17th Century Iroquoian “Palisade” Native American Indian Village with “Longhouses” – Cattashowrock Town. , a Worship Center and the tribes own 10 acre Powwow Grounds.

•             June 2009, five issues of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe’s Journals, the Waskehee (Volume I –V), were archived into the Collection Department of the Library of Virginia.

•             July 26 - 27, 2009 the tribe’s 8th Annual “Green Corn Dance” Pow Wow and Gathering took place in July at the Southampton County Fairgrounds, Courtland, Virginia as a celebration of 429 years of documented Ethno-History (1580 to 2009).

•             On July 25, 2009 Issue VI of the Journal of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Southampton County Virginia, the WASKEHEE,  was published with a second listing of our tribal language as recorded by John Wood in 1820, with copies of letters between Thomas Jefferson and Peter DuPonceau certifying that we are Iroquoian speakers.

•             On August 10, 2009, Prince J. Walter D. “Spirit Hawk” Brown, IV, son of Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, was admitted to Bacone College, Muskogee, Okalahoma, on an American Indian Student of Promise Scholarship – Student ID A000038451.  Bacone College was originally founded in 1880 to educate American Indians; as such, “Spirit Hawk” made history for the tribe in becoming the first recorded Tribal Member, since 1711 (The Brafferton) and 1878 (Hampton Normal School), to attend College at a school originally set aside for the education of American Indians.

•             September 25, 2012, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and ASV gave a Native American  Multi-Cultural Day presentation at Fort Monroe, VA.

•             October 10, 2009 Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a 3rd Fall Festival Powwow and School Day at Blackstone Army Air Field (Fort Pickett), Blackstone, VA

•             On November 20 and 21, 2009 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe entered into a partnership with First Landing Foundation Historical Villages at Cape Henry, Fort Story, Virginia Beach Virginia and along with the Archeological Society of Virginia, Nansemond Chapter, conducted  a Native American History School Days and a Corn Harvest Fall Festival Powwow.

•             From January 2009 through December 2009 Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, with the support of other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian tribal members and the Archeological Society of Virginia, Nansemond Chapter, gave Native American Ethno Historical Educational Presentations (SOL Specific) to more than 2,500 students from different public school throughout Hampton Roads, Richmond, Southside and Western Virginia; to include, sharing  displays of Prehistoric Artifacts, and the spoken language of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County.

•             From July 2002 through December 2009 Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, along with other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe; to include, the support of the Archeological Society of Virginia, Nansemond Chapter, have addressed more than 500,000 people throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia consisting of students, educators, historical societies, professional organizations, the general public, and military audiences at different post, bases and installations, (Army, Navy, Air force Marines)  by way of onsite classroom presentations, historical lectures, Powwows, and some One Million + by way of television documentaries (Chief Red Hawk and My Hampton Roads, Wavy TV 10 ), sharing the history and language of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County Virginia. 

•             April 9, 2010, Timmons Group developed and presented to the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe a Draft Master Plan / Concept Site Plan for the Tribes 100 acres of land and the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Cultural Center and Museum.

•             In February 2010, after number of years of presentations / providing more than 1,000 pages of Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe’s ethno history and genealogy links of its members to the VCI – 2002 -2009; to include, an unsuccessful Senate Joint Resolution, (SJR) 152, petition for State Recognition to the General Assembly on January 18, 2006, which was struck by Senator L. Louise Lucas in the Senate Rules Committee, (February 10, 2006), the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County Virginia, finally received full State Recognition by way of SJR 151 and HJR 172.

•             July 24-25, 2010, the tribe’s 9th Annual “Green Corn Dance” Powwow and Gathering took place at the Southampton County Fairgrounds, Courtland, Virginia as a celebration of 430 years of documented Ethno-History (1580 to 2010).

•             October 9, 2010 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a 4th Fall Festival Powwow and School Day at Blackstone Army Air Field (Fort Pickett), Blackstone, VA

•             October 15, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members a representative from ASV gave a Native American Presentation to students and teachers at Ingleside Elementary School, Norfolk, VA.

•             October 19th & 20th, 2010, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosed a Fall Festival Powwow and School Day at the Village of Cape Henry, Fort Pickett, Virginia Beach, Virginia.

•             November 1, 2010 the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a Speakers Forum and a Fall Festival Powwow on the campus of Old Dominion University

•             November 3, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and a representative from ASV gave a Native History Month presentation to the staff and employees of Booz Allen Hamilton, Norfolk, VA.

•             November 5, 2010, Chief  Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and a representative from ASV gave a Native American History Month presentation to students and teachers a Rainbow Station School, Virginia Beach, VA.

•             November 6, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompany by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and ASV gave a Native American History Month presentation to the general public at Miles Carpenter Museum, Waverly, VA.

•             November 13, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompany by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and ASV gave a Native American History Month presentation at the Ruth Camp Campbell Memorial Library, Franklin, VA.

•             November 13, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown was first to appear in a series of recorded televised Interviews with Wavy TV 10, Andy Fox, sharing the Ethno and Current History of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Southampton County Virginia, in a documentary Title “My Hampton Roads” – some 1.5 million viewers tuned in to the documentary. 

•             November 15, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and ASV, gave a Native American History Month Presentation at Oceana Airbase, Dr56 Fleet Logistics Command, Virginia Beach, VA.

•             November 16, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and ASV gave a Native American History Month Presentation to the Coast Guard Unit, Dam Neck, Norfolk, VA.

•             November 17, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker) and other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, accompanied by members of ASV, gave a Native American History Month Presentation at the Navy Region Mid-Atlantic Command.

•             November 18, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker) accompanied by other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and ASV gave a Native American History Month presentation to the Command and Staff of the Joint Intelligence Operations Center (JIOC), Naval Support Activity, Norfolk, VA.

•             November 23, 2010, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and ASV gave a Native American History Month presentation to the Command and Staff, Sailors and Marines, on board the USS George Bush Aircraft Carrier (CVN77), Norfolk Naval Base, Norfolk, VA.

•             April 21, 2011, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, (guest speaker),  accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian  tribal members and a representative from ASV gave a Native Presentation for Earth Day to the Piedmont Environmental Council in Loudon, VA.

•             April 30, 2011, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a Spring Festival Intertribal Powwow and School Day on the campus of Southside Community College, Alberta, VA.

•             April 2011, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe in a corporate effort with Nature of Conservancy, Virginia Department of Forestry and other State and Federal Agencies planted 20,000 Long Leaf Pines on 50 acres of the tribes 100 acres of land – Cattashowrock Town.

•             May 5, 2011, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, (guest speaker), accompanied by an ASV Representative gave a Native American Presentation on the ethno history of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, of Southampton County VA, to the Southeastern Water Conservation Authority in Roanoke, VA.

•             July 23, 2011, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted the Annual Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe Intertribal “Green Corn Dance” Powwow and Gathering on its 100 acres of Tribal Land, Cattashowrock Town, Courtland, VA 23837 as a celebration of 431 years of documented ethno history.

•             July – September 2011, (each Thursday) Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown accompany by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and representatives from ASV gave Native American Presentations to students and the general public attending the “First Landing Play” at Cape Henry, Fort Eustis, VA.

•             September 30, 2011, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted an Intertribal Powwow and Speakers Forum on the Campus of Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA.

•             August 11, 2011, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, (guest speaker), accompanied by other tribal members and representatives from ASV gave a Native Presentation to the ASV Northern Virginia Chapter, Fairfax, VA.

•             November 2, 2011, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe conducted the Hand Site Marker Ceremony  for the emplacement of a State Roadside Marker commemorating the Hand Site in Southampton County – a Native Site long claimed by the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe.

•             November 3rd, 5th, 10th and 17th , 2011, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and ASV gave Native American History Presentation on the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe to four public libraries in Norfolk, VA – Park Place, Van Wyck Branch, Horace C. Downing and Larchmount Branch.  

•             November 16, 2011, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown and other tribal Members were featured in Volume 1, Issue 42 of the Indian Country Today News Magazine – Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Intertribal “Corn Harvest” Powwow, Cape Henry – Fort Story, Virginia Beach, VA. Article titled: “Here Comes the Corn Harvest Powwow.”

•             November 18 -19, 2011, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a Fall Festival Intertribal Powwow and School Day, at Cape Henry-Fort Story, Virginia Beach, VA.

•             Fall 2011, Chief Walt “ Red Hawk” Brown, of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway)India Tribe, featured as guest Native American Speaker on the ethno history of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe in the Fall Edition of the North Carolina Eastern Living Magazine – magazine distribution consist of some 12 counties,

•             November 22, 2011, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other tribal members and a representative from ASV gave a Native American Presentation (Native American History Month) to the Army Aviation School, Fort Eustis, VA

•             February 26, 2012, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker) and other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and ASV gave a Native American History Presentation to the Boy Scout Troop, Carrsiville, VA.

•             February 29, 2012, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown gave a Native Presentation on the history of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe to 35 undergraduate students and faculty members at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.

•             April 23, 2012, (Saint George Day), the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe presented the 299th Spotswood Treaty Tribute of 3 Arrows, a Beaver Pelt and Wampum Belt to Virginia’s Governor the Honorable Bob McDonnel. (Spotswood Treaty with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe February 27, 1713).

•             March 10, 2012, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and ASV gave a Native Presentation on the history of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe to the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), Francis Land Chapter, Virginia Beach VA.

•             June 28, 2012, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and ASV gave a Native History presentation on the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe to students and teachers of Evlin Elementary School, Reston, VA.

•             August 2, 2012, The Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe launched its Tribal Facebook page: www.Facebook.com/CheroenhakaNottowayIndianTribe.

•             August 2012, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other tribal members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe an a representative from ASV, gave a Native American presentation to the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), Virginia Beach, VA.

•             November 16, 2012, Grand Opening of Cattashowrock Town (School Day), a replica 17th Century Iroquoian Palisade Native American Village on the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe’s 100 acres of land. Some 900 2nd through 6th graders and teachers visited Cattashowrock Town. NOTE: The tribe’s Palisade Village (Cattashowrock Town) is a replica of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Village described by William Byrd, II of Westover upon his visit on April 7th & 8th, 1728.

•             November 17, 2012, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted its Annual Fall Festival Intertribal “Corn Harvest Dance” Powwow on its own 10 acre Powwow grounds – Cattashowrock Town.

•             April 9, 2013, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe received a thank you letter from Her Majesty, The Queen of England, reference the Spotswood’s Treaty Tribute. The letter, addressed to the attention of Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, was on the letterhead of Buckingham Place and signed by Mrs. Sonia Bonici, Her Majesty’s Senior Correspondent.

•             April 23, 2013, (Saint George Day), the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe presented the 300th Spotswood Treaty Tribute of 3 Arrows, a Beaver Pelt and Wampum Belt to Virginia’s Governor. The Treaty Tribute was accepted on behalf of the Governor by the Honorable LT Governor Bill Bolling. (Spotswood Treaty with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe February 27, 1713).

•             May 3, 4, & 5, 2013, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a Spring Festival Powwow and School Day on its tribal land – Cattashowrock Town, 27345 Aquia Path, Courtland, VA 23837

•             July 2013, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted its Annual “Green Corn Dance” Intertribal Powwow and Gathering at Cattashowrock Town.

•             November 6, 2013, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribal Members and a representative from ASV gave a Native American History presentation to students and teachers at Booker T. Washington Elementary School, Suffolk, VA.

•             November 13, 2013, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, accompanied by other tribal members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and representatives of ASV, was the guest speaker for Native American History Month at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) HQ, Washington, DC.

•             November 15, 2013, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a School Day at Cattashowrock Town. Some 1,166 2nd through 6th grade students and teachers visited the tribe’s replica 17th Century Iroquoian Palisade Native Village at Cattashowrock Town.

•             November 16, 2013, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted its Annual Fall Festival “Corn Harvest” Intertribal Powwow and Gathering at Cattashowrock Town.

•             April 23, 2014. (Saint George Day), the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe presented the 301st Spotswood Treaty Tribute of 3 Arrows, a Beaver Pelt and Wampum Belt to Virginia’s Governor the Honorable Terry McAuliffe. (Spotswood Treaty with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe February 27, 1713).

•             July 26, 2014, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted its Annual “Green Corn Dance” Intertribal Powwow and Gathering at Cattashowrock Town.

•             November 14, 2014, the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted a School Day at Cattashowrock Town. Some 1,000 2nd through 6th graders and teachers from public, private and home school schools, visited the tribe’s replica 17th Century Iroquoian Palisade Native Village.

•             November 15 & 16, 2014, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe hosted its Annual Fall Festival Corn Harvest Intertribal Powwow and Gathering at Cattashowrock Town. 

•             November 18, 2014, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, accompanied by other tribal members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and representatives of ASV, was the guest speaker for Native American History Month at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) HQ, Richmond, VA.

•             November 25, 2014, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker) accompanied by other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and ASV gave a Native American History Month presentation to the student and teachers of Pioneer Elementary School, Suffolk, VA.

•             November 25, 2014, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown (guest speaker), accompanied by other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe and ASV gave a Native American History Month presentation to the students and teachers of Booker T. Washington Elementary School, Suffolk, VA.

•             March 5, 2015, Chief Walt “Red Hawk” Brown, (guest speaker),  accompanied by other members of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe gave a Native American Presentation on the ethno history of the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe to students of Tidewater Academy, Wakefield, VA.

•             April 23, 2015, (Saint George Day), the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe presented the 302nd Spotswood Treaty Tribute of 3 Arrows, a Beaver Pelt and Wampum Belt to Virginia’s Governor. The 302nd Treaty Tribute was accepted on behalf of Virginia’s Governor by the Honorable LT Governor Ralph Norcham. (Spotswood Treaty with the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe February 27, 1713).

 

                                         

Chief Walt Brown's mark

Chief Walter D. “Red Hawk” Brown, III,  
Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe
Southampton County, Virginia